Types of Share Capital – Meaning, Examples, Advantages, Disadvantages

Types of Share Capital-What is Share Capital-Example of Share Capital-Share Capital Types-Advantages-Disadvantages of Share Capital

Share capital is money raise by a company by selling shares. Share capital is the money invest by a company’s shareholders. Investors obtain a stake in the company as well as long-term finance. The total share value of a firm is refer to as its “share capital.” In business, the terms “capital” and “share capital” are interchangeable. Let us understand what is share capital with examples, formula, advantages, disadvantages and types of share capital in this topic.

A company’s share capital is what keeps it functioning and profitable. So, it’s an important part of the structure of a limited liability company and helps the company’s reputation. The assets of the company must be register in the Articles of Association and Memorandum of Association Get more information on advantages of equity shares issue by reading this comprehensive guide.

What is Share Capital?

It is the profit made by a company from the sale of common or preferred stock. Moreover, the relevance of share capital varies depending on the context.

Share capital is the money raise by a company by selling shares to private and public investors. A firm, as an artificial person, sells its shares to investors, also known as shareholders. For their money, these investors receive company shares.

A company’s fixed-amount capital is represent by shares. Selling stock raises funds. A company’s share capital can be change by issuing new shares.

Additionally, a CPA may describe share capital as money earned through the selling of company stock. As a company issues additional shares, its capital grows. On the other hand, share capital is only available to companies that are limited by shares. Such capital is lacking in unlimited enterprises and LLCs.

Joint-stock corporations raise funds by selling shares. This firm or business can be a separate legal entity. Although, a limited liability corporation limits investors’ investment quantities to reduce risk (LLC).

Formula of Share Capital

There are two methods for calculating a company’s share capital. To begin, share capital is the issue price multiply by the number of outstanding shares. Second, share capital is calculate as (original shares x par value) + paid-up capital. Face value is equal to par value. “Additional paid-up capital” is more than the par value of a share.

Example of Share Capital

ABC issued 10,000 shares with a par value of $10 and an issue price of $15. Also, this translates to one million Common Stock shares, or 10,000 $10 shares. $10,000 multiplied by $5 equals $500,000 in extra paid-up capital. 1,500,000 total (1,000,000 plus 50,000).

Types of Share Capital

You can also read about different types of equity shares for your research purpose. People must comprehend the various types of share capital in order to correctly appraise a firm. Types of share capital include:

Issued Share Capital

Publicly-available Issued Share Capital is the same as Authorized Share Capital. Shares are issued, distributed, and assigned. Issued Share Capital is include in Authorized Share Capital. A subscriber becomes an investor when they purchase shares.

Authorized Share Capital

In addition, the amount that a corporation can raise by selling shares is refer as authorised share capital. This sum is documentable in the company’s papers. A corporation is form using Registered Capital or Nominal Capital.

Section 2(8) of the Companies Act of 2013 specifies the maximum amount of Authorized Capital that a company may hold. The company can increase its authorised capital limit to issue new shares, but only up to the maximum. Issued + Unissued = Authorized Share.

Unissued Share Capital

As previously stated, corporations issue stock. The approved capital and the issued capital will differ. Although, the discrepancy is made up of unissued share capital. Unissued capital is the value of a company’s unsold shares.

Subscribed Capital

The general public purchased subscribed capital. The general public is not require to purchase all issued capital. It is the requested issued capital of the company.

For example, if a company sells 16000 shares at Rs 100 each but only 12000 are purchased. The issued capital is Rs 1.6 million and the subscribed capital is Rs 1.2 million. The number of issued, outstanding, and treasury shares is the same.

Paid-up Types of Share Capital

Paid-up Called-up Capital is shareholder-paid capital. The shareholder is not require to pay the requested amount. Besides, the shareholder may contribute half of the “called-up capital” to the corporation.

Called-Up Capital

Called-up Subscribed Capital equals Shareholder-paid Capital. The corporation does not receive all of the funds at once. The subscription capital is distribute in installments. Uncalled Capital is Subscribe Capital that has not been use.

Uncalled Share Capital

When a company distributes shares to shareholders, it expects to be payable. They have the option to decline. Unclaimed shares are refer to as uncalled share capital. So, this capital includes stockholders’ potential indebtedness. It is what remains after deducting called-up capital from issued shares.

Fixed and Circulating Share Capital

Circulating share capital is include in subscribe capital. Bank reserves, book debts, and accounts receivable are examples of these. These are also critical business funds. A company’s fixed capital is its fixed assets.

Reserve Share Capital

The quantity of shares that a company cannot sell before declaring bankruptcy. These shares are typically distributed following a vote with a majority of more than 75%. Corporate bylaws cannot be altered in order to overturn this judgement. Reserve capital makes liquidation easier.

Various causes limit reserve capital. These funds cannot be use as collateral or invested. Companies can ask a court to overturn it. Unless and until the company closes, reserve money cannot be utilize.

Advantages of Share Capital

Unlike bank loans, the corporation is not require to make regular monthly payments or pay interest on its share capital. Profits are disperse as dividends, which can be stop at any time.

Flexibility in Raising Capital

Capital-raising options include when and how many shares to sell. If the company needs less money at first, it may ask for less shareholder capital.

Flexibility in Capital Usage

The corporation can use the money from the share sale however it sees fit. Money can be spent as you want.

Lower Risk

Selling stock is less risky than other types of debt. Creditors, not shareholders, can force a corporation out of business.

Disadvantages of Share Capital

When a corporation sells shares, it loses control and ownership. A corporate share is own by a shareholder. Moreover, shareholders have the right to vote on corporate and management policies. The owner can be remove by a majority of shareholders.

Higher Cost of Raising Capital

Investing takes both money and time. By informing investors about the IPO, the company will save money on advertising and legal fees.

Higher Rate of Return

Shareholders Assume more Risk than Creditors and Expect a Higher Return


Dividends are payable after taxes, whereas loan interest is not.


Share capital is money earn by a corporation from the sale of shares to shareholders. It is one way for joint-stock companies to raise funds. Before making financial decisions, a firm must weigh the benefits and drawbacks of selling shares. Hope you understood meaning of share capital with examples, advantages, disadvantages, formula and types of share capital in this topic.

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