What is Mutual Fund? Meaning, Structure, Pros and Cons

Mutual Fund Meaning-What is Mutual Fund Definition-What is Mutual Fund Investment

A mutual fund pools money from several people and invests it in stocks, bonds, and other securities. Let us learn what is mutual fund meaning, how mutual funds work, benefits, advantages and disadvantages of mutual fund to determine if they are good for you.

When selecting funds, think about how long you intend to invest for. Either though lumpsum or SIP mutual funds investment. Most experts recommend investing in stock funds if you won’t be retiring for a long time. As you approach retirement, you may need to be more cautious and switch from equities to bonds. Read this informative article to explore the secondary market for government securities issue further.

What is Mutual Fund Meaning?

Mutual funds is define as a financial instruments that invest client cash in a wide range of assets. In other words, a mutual fund is an investment vehicle that invests money from investors in stocks, bonds, and other securities. A portfolio is a grouping of businesses.

It is typically invest in financial securities such as equities and money market instruments such as CDs and bonds. Equity is a significant asset class. They could be short-term, medium-term, or long-term in nature. The riskiness of an asset is determine by its type.

How a Mutual Fund Works?

Mutual funds were invent in 1774 by a Dutch businessman name Adriaan van Ketwich as a way for investors to pool their money and invest more broadly. Dutch King William I supposedly formed a closed-end investing organisation in 1822. In 1924, the first modern mutual fund was founded.

Moreover, mutual funds are popular among new investors and those who do not want to put in a lot of effort to develop their money. These funds are investments that include stocks, bonds, and short-term loans. Mutual funds are usually manage by professional investors.

Each mutual fund has a goal that the manager seeks to attain through the use of a certain management style. In addition, it could invest in global stocks, regional or national stocks, or companies with high dividend yields and sales growth. Its managers may also choose low-risk stocks or bonds.

Each mutual fund share represents a proportional ownership position in the fund’s earnings, similar to purchasing shares in a publicly listed firm. Instead of purchasing stock in a single company, you purchase shares in a mutual fund.

Mutual funds are open-ended investments, which means you can buy or sell shares at any time. Mutual fund shares can be sold back to the fund directly or through a broker for their net asset value (NAV).

The NAV of the fund is the value of its assets less its liabilities. It is calculated once every day, usually after trade. To calculate the NAV of a share, multiply the fund’s NAV by the number of outstanding shares.

Mutual fund investors do not own the stocks or bonds purchased by the fund. They benefit instead from rising asset values since they own shares in the fund that owns the assets.

Structure of Mutual Fund

Mutual funds are trusts in India. To maximize earnings while minimizing risk, these funds invest in both equities and bonds. Examine the structure of the mutual funds listed below.

Asset Management Company (AMC)

An AMC will handle the trust’s investments. It will be in charge of the day-to-day activities. So, it will have complete control over all investment funds. The AMC or fund house is chosen by the sponsor or trustees. SEBI approval is required for an AMC. The sponsor should contribute up to 40% of its net assets.


Trustees protect mutual fund investors’ interests. The board of trustees must also guarantee that the fund house follows all SEBI regulations (SEBI). A minimum of four board members must be independent. The trustees follow the Trust Deed established by the sponsor.

They ensure that the fund house has suitable operating and managerial procedures in place. The board of directors and fund managers are the most important personnel in the fund company (scheme-wise).

They design the fund’s internal control and audit procedures, as well as the procedures for registering with and interacting with brokers and agents.


Creates the Mutual Fund or Trust. A business promoter is a sponsor. Moreover, the trustees, asset manager, and custodian of a mutual fund are all chosen by the fund’s sponsor.


A custodian holds the AMC’s shares and other securities. So, a custodian manages the investment account of a fund firm.

Pros / Advantages of Mutual Funds

Mutual funds are also classified into groups based on their investment goals. Some investors prefer to keep their money safe, but others prefer to make a lot of money. Here are some of the pros or advantages of mutual funds:


All investors, young and old, should understand the dangers of putting all of their eggs in one basket. Mutual funds are also seen to be an effective way to diversify.

Although, an investor may need to purchase a number of individual shares to diversify. Even a single broad-based mutual fund can give a lot of variety. Using an index fund, find all of the stocks in a key market benchmark.


Most investors lack the necessary knowledge, time, and money to construct their own stock and bond portfolios.

Non-investors, on the other hand, can benefit from a professionally managed, diversified portfolio by investing in mutual funds.


Mutual funds can be purchase directly from the fund company or through an online brokerage account. Mutual fund shares can be purchase with a low or no minimum investment. For example, the customary $2,500 minimum initial commitment requirement is waived with a monthly or biweekly automatic share purchase plan from Fidelity.


Mutual funds are available in almost every market segment. Clients can invest in certain stock market sectors using sector funds. Investors can also purchase commodities such as gold, silver, oil, and natural gas by investing in a fund that holds stock in commodity companies. This adaptability can be use to supplement an investor’s mutual fund portfolio.

Cons / Disadvantages of Mutual Funds

Mutual fund programmes are typically classified according to how they invest. Let us look at the cons or disadvantages of mutual funds.

Power is Reduce

Individual investments provide investors more control over their money than mutual funds.

Investing is Risky

Stocks, bonds, and mutual funds that invest in them all carry risk, which means you might lose your entire initial investment. The risk levels of various mutual funds differ. Stock funds, for example, are riskier than bond funds and have higher volatility.

Bond funds are perceive to be riskier than money market funds and to entail more credit risk. Before investing, determine your risk tolerance and then invest accordingly.

Squandering Money

Gains on mutual fund investments may be taxed if kept in taxable accounts such as brokerage accounts (for example, dividends from an income fund). Maintain mutual funds in tax-advantaged accounts such as IRAs.


A badly chosen mutual fund could end up costing a lot of money. Fees for selling and administering the fund. Look for funds with no sales or transaction fees and an expense ratio of 0.45 percent or less to maximise your investment returns.


It is a collection of many people’s money infuse in a variety of securities. Moreover, mutual funds can be purchase directly from the fund or through a broker. Some mutual funds are expensive, and placing them in a taxable account can increase the cost. Hope you have understood what is mutual fund definition with examples along with pros and cons of mutual funds.

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